This is a comprehensive coffee roasting chart. It shows the bean temperature required to get a light roast, light city roast, Full city roast, French roast and Italian roast. You’ll note that the tasting notes differ for each roast, with complex acidity at the lighter end of the scale and bitterness and smokey notes at the darker end. Different beans are suited to different roasting styles and you should choose a roast depending on the drink required.
Espresso is generally produced from a French or Italian roast, Lattes and filter coffees usually bias towards the city roasts. Listening out for the 1st and 2nd crack will really help you to get a feel for your equipment. The bean itself also varies the temperature with some beans burning quite quickly and others taking much longer to achieve a dark roast.